Saturday, January 8, 2011

Physics Context: Super Speed Computer Processor by Grafin Transistor


Know what your computer processor speed today?  Your notebook processor speed or current?  Know what the fastest computer processor speed today?  Apparently all is still in the figure Mega Hertz (MHz) or Giga Hertz (GHz).
Ever imagine what it's like using a super fast computer with a processor speed of 40 Terra Hertz (40,000 GHz)?
This is what is being designed by an engineering physics professor named Walter de Heer.  In the year 2008 and then he finds a material for making semiconductors for use in electronic devices including a computer processor.  Such materials are grafin, a new form of carbon.  During these semiconductor materials used in electronic circuits from silicon.  Materials that many we encounter in pencil contents.
Earlier models were made of carbon that can be expected that more baih semiconductor material than silicon.  And it turns out according to the model grafin one of the most suitable ..  One layer with a thickness of 1 carbon atom can be made into transistors with a speed hundreds of times faster than current silicon transistors.  Together with MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Walter grafin make hundreds of transistors on a chip.  The results further confirm that grafin transistors could be material for future generations.
He added that the silicon transistor-based computers is currently only able to run a number of operations per second it without over-heating.  But with grafin, electrons can move more quickly is almost without a hitch so that the heat generated is also small.  Moreover, the ingredients themselves are grafin heat conductor material so that heat generated can be eliminated quickly.  Therefore grafin-based electronics will work with much faster.
"I believe that we can make (the processor), terra-hertz - a factor of 1000 times of giga hertz." Said Walter.
Besides making computers faster, electronic goods based grafin will be very useful for communications and imaging technologies that require ultra-speed transistors.
Use of grafin first is at the high frequency applications such as terahertz wave imaging, which can be used to detect concealed weapons.
Apart from the speed there is a value more than grafin than silicon.  Silicon can not be "carved" into an electronic circuit with a size smaller than 10 nanometers without lose its electronic properties.  However grafin property will remain the same - even the higher electronic properties - the size of 1 nanometer.
Grafin stems from interest in carbon nanotube research.  Carbon nanotubes, which is basically a sheet rolled into a cylinder grafin, have electronic properties that could be a component of high performance electronic.
Walter makes electronic circuits on these grafin by the same method to create silicon circuits.  And so now the semiconductor companies in droves asking cooperation with the professor.
Nevertheless, with so many advantages compared to silicon was grafin still leaves a fundamental problem.  Silicon although not as fast electron transfer grafin but he can act like a switch, sometimes can sometimes stop the continuing flow of current.  This character of the material needed for a processor.
While grafin conductivity is very high but he cannot act as a switch.  Grafin difficult to shut-off flow, because the resistance is too small and the conductivity cannot be made zero.  High conductivity would be very useful in certain applications such as high frequency transistors for imaging and communications.  But very inefficient when used as a transistor computer processors.
Although there are weaknesses, the professor no less sense.  Prof.  Walter explained in a seminar that can be made into semiconductor grafin with 3 ways.
First, by making such a narrow ribbon grafin & thin that it will increase resistance.  And the second way, by chemically modifying grafin.  The third way by putting a layer above the substrate grafin certain.
Modifications grafin ribbon with oxygen could induce semiconductor characteristics at grafin, he explained.  By combining these three methods, it is possible to create the required behavior of the switch transistors in computer processors.
Now the giant electronics companies, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, and Intel investigate grafin flock to their product development in the future. How, eager to feel the computer processor 40 Terra Hertz?  Let's just wait.


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